Climate change most extreme

If the current state of climate debate here on planet Earth seems a bit fraught with pending disaster, NASA has been studying the past history of our neighbor (and nearest partner in climate) Mars, and they are ready to proclaim that what is past is not quite prologue to what is present.  An entire ocean, possibly located on the northern lowlands, approximately the size of Earth’s Arctic ocean and as much as a mile deep, disappeared some time in the first billion years of Mars’s existence, around 3.7 billion years ago.  Over that time, 87% of Mars’s free standing water vanished, likely into space as the planet lost the ability to hold onto its water vapor, with only its present-day ice cap, estimated to be 13% of the original ocean, left behind to tell the tale.

With its tiny polar cap, the Martian Santa Claus had a small, but viable, base of operations.

With its tiny polar cap, the Martian Santa Claus had a small, but viable, base of operations.

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